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Hindi language belongs to the Indo Aryan family which in turn is a sub group of Indo- European family of languages. It is one of the most widely spoken languages of the world. Scholars like Dr Jayanti Prasad Nautiyal put it at number [1] while others put it number 2 and at number 3. According the latest figures in the Census of India, 2001, there are 422,048,642 people who have declared Hindi as their mother tongue and first language. This excludes other languages which, traditionally have been part of Hindi such as Maithili 12,179,122 and other non schedule languages. Just opposite to the popular belief and a myth created by Western media, English is the mother tongue of only 226,449 people which is approximately 0.2 percent, not even half a percent.

Hindi is one of the 22 national languages and the Official Language of India. Majority of people in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar speak Hindi while it is the second most spoken language in Gujrat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Chandigarh. Members of emigrant Indian communities all around the world use Hindi as a lingua franca. This is truly an international language as it has some or the other forms of recognition in Fiji, Mauritius, Guyana, Suriname and Nepal.

Most of us would not believe that the modern Indo- Aryan languages have a vast pool of literary creations among them. Some of these standardized literary languages are Assamese, Oriya, Nepali, Bengali, Marathi, Konkani, Punjabi, Sinhalese, Sindhi, Kashmiri and Gujrati. These are the direct descendents of Sanskrit which remained the most important vehicle of communication of classical Indian literature, scriptures and for that matter the civilization itself.

Some commonality of relation of these modern Indian languages to Sanskrit can be found in modern Roman languages such as French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian to Latin.

India is such a vast country and a saying is famous there. It says-कोस कोस पै बदले बानी, चार कोस पै पानी meaning that after each two miles you pass, you come across a new dialect while the taste of water changes every eight miles. In strict terms, there are [49] dialects that have been included in Hindi census figures of 2001.

The standardized Hindi is called khari boli खड़ी बोली which literally means ‘standing dialect’. This dialect of Hindi is spoken in areas surrounding Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, bordering Delhi. The dialect rose to be a language in today’s term through a complex journey of some 1200 years. In its current from, Hindi has its vocabulary from such diverse sources as Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Portuguese and English but mostly from Sanskrit.

1 Awadhi 26 Kurmali Thar
2 Bagheli/Baghel Khan 27 Labani
3 Bagri Rajasthani 28 Lamani/ Lambadi
4 Banjari 29 Laria
5 Bhadrawahi 30 Lodhi
6 Bharmauri/ Gaddi 31 Magadhi/ Magahi
7 Bhojpuri 32 Malvi
8 Brajbhasha 33 Mandeali
9 Bundeli/ Bundelkhan 34 Marwari
10 Chambeali 35 Mewari
11 Chhattisgarhi 36 Mewati
12 Churahi 37 Nagpuria
13 Dhundhari 38 Nimadi
14 Garhwali 39 Pahari
15 Gojri 40 Panch Pargania
16 Harauti 41 Pangwali
17 Haryanvi 42 Pawari/ Powari
18 Hindi 43 Rajasthani
19 Jaunsari 44 Sadan/ Sadri
20 Kangri 45 Sirmauri
21 Khairari 46 Sondwari
22 Khari Boli 47 Sugali
23 Khortha/ Khotta 48 Surgujia
24 Kulvi 49 Surjapuri
25 Kumauni    

[1]  डॉ. जयंती प्रसाद नौटियाल, ''भाषा शोध अध्ययन 2005 - विश्व में हिंदी पहले स्थान पर'', प्रवासी संसार, अंक 3, सितम्बर 2006, पृष्ठ 26-30

[2]  Census of India, 2001